How to use Special Class Methods in Python(OOP)

An Overview of Special Class Methods :

Prior to getting into the specifics, let’s examine what special class methods are and what makes them so unique. Extraordinary class techniques in Python are utilized to characterize how objects of a class act because of explicit tasks. These techniques are demonstrated by twofold highlights when their names, for example, __init__, __str__, and __add__. They give you the ability to personalize your classes, making them more Python-like and user-friendly.

The Magic of Dunder methods:

The expression “dunder” is another way to say “double underscore,” and it implies the extraordinary idea of these techniques. They are otherwise called enchantment techniques since they perform in the background sorcery to make your classes more intelligent and easy to use.

Getting Started with __init__

One of the special class methods that is utilized the most frequently is __init__. The constructor technique introduces the article’s credits when an occasion is made.

Using the __str__ and __repr__ methods to customize object representation:

The __str__ and __repr__ methods let you specify how your objects are represented as strings. This is helpful for troubleshooting and showing significant data about your items.

Overloading Operators with __add__, __sub__, and More

Python allows you to define the corresponding dunder methods for overloading operators like +, -, and *. Your objects might behave like built-in types as a result of this.

Iteration and __iter__, __next__

You can make your items iterable by executing the __iter__ and __next__ strategies. When working with iterators or custom collections, this is especially helpful.

Using the __call__ method to create callable objects

You can make instances of your class callable in the same way that functions are. This opens up opportunities for making objects with worked-in ways of behaving.

Python (OOP) : How to use Special Class Methods

Inheritance and special class methods:

Extraordinary class techniques can be acquired and abrogated in subclasses, permitting you to fabricate complex class pecking orders with modified conduct.

Best Practices for Utilizing Special Class Methods:

To take full advantage of extraordinary class techniques, following prescribed procedures is fundamental. We’ll investigate tips and rules to keep your code spotless and viable.

Pythonic OOP: A Contextual investigation

In this part, we’ll stroll through a true instance of planning Pythonic classes utilizing extraordinary class techniques, outlining the power and tastefulness of this methodology.

Avoiding Common Mistakes

While using special class methods can improve your code, developers frequently make several common mistakes. To assist you in avoiding these pitfalls, we will highlight them.

Tips for Writing Code That Can Be Maintained:

Software development relies heavily on maintainability. Figure out how to compose spotless, intelligible, and viable code while utilizing exceptional class techniques.


All in all, unique class strategies in Python’s OOP system give a strong component to modifying your classes and upgrading their usefulness. By getting it and utilizing these techniques, you can compose more Pythonic and natural code, raising your programming craftsmanship.